北师大版 选修7 Unit 20 单元综合检测
1. For years considered as a foxy politician, Thomas Cromwell has been greatly rehabilitated (恢复……的名誉) by Hilary Mantel’s prize-winning novels, Wolf Hall (2009) and Bring Up the Bodies (2012). It’s true that he planned Anne Boleyn’s fall, and made a large fortune in a dishonest way, but he was also a good husband and father, charming and modest, a self-made man.
Certainly, he is one of the outstanding figures from Henry VIII’s court. Extremely hard-working, he was a productive reporter. It was not unusual for him to start work as early as 5 am and finish well after midnight.
Yet in researching the biography of Cromwell, I have discovered frustrating gaps in sources, particularly in relation to his early life.
The man who would one day become the most powerful in England was raised from such humble (卑微的) origins that nobody knows when or where he was born. As the son of a blacksmith, he suffered a miserable childhood.
I had the portrait (肖像), which now hangs in the Frick Collection in New York, of a thoughtful but rather bad-tempered official in mind. It seems to describe a cruel man of business, which was what I thought before I read Wolf Hall. But Mantel’s portrait of a rude but intelligent man who was as loyal to his family and friends as he was cruel to his enemies is really convincing.
His last letter to Henry VIII, written from the Tower in June 1540, is desperately moving. “Most gracious Prince,” he wrote with his trembling hand, “I cry for mercy, mercy, mercy !” Henry was said to have read the letter three times. But it was not enough to save Cromwell from the axe.
Within weeks of Cromwell’s death, his royal master was regretting the loss of “the most faithful servant”. But Henry’s daughter Mary destroyed all of that. Debate has taken place ever since — among historians, novelists and film-makers alike — as to who was the real Cromwell.【小题1】Why are there few sources of Cromwell’s early life according to the passage?
|A．He was a mysterious man.||B．He wanted to be a dark horse.|
|C．He was a man of humble birth.||D．He was misunderstood by the public.|
|A．had only a limited understanding of Cromwell|
|B．had his doubts about Mantel’s portrait of Cromwell|
|C．thought highly of the portrait hanging in the Frick Collection|
|D．considered Cromwell a popular guy among his family and friends|
|A．felt great sympathy for Cromwell|
|B．blamed Mary for Cromwell’s death|
|C．seemed a bit hesitant about killing Cromwell|
|D．was the main reason for the debate about Cromwell|
|A．Why Cromwell got successful in his career||B．How people debate on Cromwell|
|C．What the book Wolf Hall is about||D．What sort of man Cromwell really was|
2. A new study says that the faces on Lego minifigures have become less happy and more often mad or sad. The study was designed to find out if the Lego characters have become grumpier over the years.
Christoph Bartneck works at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand. He loves Lego and even worked for the company in the 1990s. He worked with another researcher on the project. They looked at all of the 6,000 figures made between 1975 and 2010. They made a note of each figure’s facial expression: happy, grumpy, afraid, surprised or satL They discovered that while in 1980, all of the figures were described as “smiley”, and that by 1990, only about 80 per cent of them had been “smiley” . And by 2010, just 50 per cent of the figures had had a smile on their little plastic faces.
The researchers are wondering how the increasingly sad, angry and unhappy faces on the Lego figures will affect the children who play with them. “Children’s toys can have an important influence on children,” said Bartneck on the university’s website. While Lego hasn’t issued an official response to the study, Bartneck said he thought the reason why Lego was producing angrier-faced characters was that children wanted them. He said it was likely that people wanted Lego characters to have different expressions, rather than just being sunny all the time. He said most of the unhappy faces were on characters based on a specific theme such as Harry Potter or pirates (海盗).
Bartneck will present his findings at the International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction in Sapporo.【小题1】What does the underlined word “grumpier” probably mean?
|A．Bartneck has been studying Lego figures|
|B．the quality of Lego figures has gone from bad to worse|
|C．more and more Lego figures have lost their smiles|
|D．Lego figures’ facial expressions have become less rich|
|A．He likes to design different Lego figures.|
|B．He is a professor who studies facial expressions.|
|C．He wants to know the influence of unhappy figures on children.|
|D．He writes to the government to explain why children love angry Lego figures.|
|A．the history of the development of Lego figures|
|B．Lego characters are getting angrier|
|C．how Bartneck carried out his study|
|D．the angrier expressions on Lego figures do great harm to children|
3. Driverless technology will soon enter another major global industry: shipping. Several companies recently announced plans to launch self-sailing ships to improve safety and efficiency.
One of them is the Norwegian chemical company Yara International. Yara has teamed up with another Norwegian company, Kongsberg, to build an autonomous goods ship expected to be launched next year. Kongsberg developed the ship’s electrical technology and autonomous control systems. The ship is fully electric to reduce air pollution. It is designed to carry goods containers normally transported by truck. This means the ship will also improve road safety by replacing about 40,000 truck trips a year. The company plans to operate the ships by far-away control beginning sometime next year. By 2020, the ships should be loading and sailing themselves. While Yara’s ships will be limited to Norway at first, the company plans to greatly expand its autonomous shipping operations in the coming years.
Another company putting a high priority (优先) to self-sailing ships is the world’s largest mining company, Australia’s BHP Billiton. The company’s Vice President of Freight, Rashpal Bhatti, recently spoke about the technology in a website post. Bhatti believes automation will be one of the biggest changes for shipping in the future. He said, “Autonomous ships offer important opportunities to improve safety and provide more effective results to the supply chain of the sea.” He added that self-sailing ships could become a reality within the next decade.
Rolls-Royce, the British automobile and engine manufacturer (制造商), is also developing unmanned (无人驾驶的) shipping technologies. Oskar Levander is the company’s head of operations at sea. He said in a conference last year, “This is happening. It’s not if, it’s when.”
Levander said these autonomous ships could be controlled by far-away operators from anywhere. He added, “Because these ships will be designed to be unmanned, they can be built smaller, more efficient and environmentally friendly.”【小题1】Why have several countries announced plans to produce self-sailing ships?
|A．To save money.|
|B．To develop electrical technology in ships.|
|C．To compete in autonomous control systems.|
|D．To make shipping more effective and less risky.|
|A．On the basis of Rolls-Royce.|
|B．By a single company independently.|
|C．By two native companies working together.|
|D．By taking electrical technology from Australia.|
|A．It is too early to make autonomous ships.|
|B．The supply chain of the sea will be busier.|
|C．People are more concerned about autonomous ships.|
|D．Unmanned shipping technologies are becoming more mature.|
|A．Automation under Sail||B．Self-sailing Ships in Use|
|C．Automation in Some Fields||D．Automation in Imagination|
4. Saja Pahad, a small village in Chhattisgarh, India, has been dealing with severe water shortages for as long as anyone can remember. With only two wells available, locals were barely able to secure enough water to feed their cattle, let alone irrigate their crops. Villagers didn’t know what to do and the government ignored their difficult situation, but one “crazy” teenager took matters into his own hands.
Shyam Lal was only 15 when he took it upon himself to solve his village’s water problem. He identified a spot in a nearby forest and decided to dig a pond to collect rainfall that could then be used by the entire village. Lal shared his idea with the rest of Saja Pahad, but instead of volunteering to help, they just laughed at his crazy plan and called him a lunatic (疯子). But the young man didn’t let the people’s reaction get him down. Instead, he grabbed a spade (铁锹) and started digging the pond himself. He kept on digging for the next 27 years.
Now 43, Shyam Lal is considered a hero by his community. That small hole he started digging nearly three decades ago is now a one-acre, 15-feet-deep pond filled with precious water that serves the entire village.
“No one helped me in my work, neither the government nor the villagers,” Lal told the Hindustan Times. “It was my dream to secure enough water for the whole village and their cattle.”
The story of Shyam Lal’s determination recently went viral in the whole of India, and prompted authorities in Mahendragarh district to finally acknowledge his achievement. A member of the government recently visited Saja Pahad and offered Lal a $ 156 prize for his contribution to the village.【小题1】Where is the pond Shyam Lal chose to dig?
|A．Near his home.||B．In his field.|
|C．Near a river.||D．In a forest.|
|A．He had been living badly.|
|B．His influence was great.|
|C．The appeal of the villagers was high.|
|D．The government wished people to follow the example of him.|
5. Nowadays it is necessary to be reasonable and flexible enough to avoid conflicts as much as possible and live in peace with others.
1. Don’t get in the center of the conflict.
Sometimes people can get in the center of conflicts because they want to help. Frankly speaking, it is very risky, because it can make you the main figure of the conflict.
2. Be kind.
3. Try to be a peacekeeper.
Peacekeepers tend to cooperate with people without bad emotions which usually lead to arguments and even conflicts. “
4. Walk off.
When the conflict is gathering pace and you can’t manage to keep yourself, you should choose to handle the situation in another way. By all means, try to keep yourself away from stress.
|A．The greatest victory is the battle not fought.|
|B．Conflicts are unavoidable, so try to accept them.|
|C．Weak people usually desire others to offer help and support.|
|D．It is helpful to put some distance between yourself and the rival (对手).|
|E．Let other people sort out their relationships without your presence.|
|F．When someone pushes you to the limit, try to act kindly towards this person.|
|G．Arguing can either break your relationship or help you get to know your partner better.|
6. There is such a thing as a free lunch, as a New Mexico schoolboy and his mom can proudly say.
Josette Duran was
“I asked, ‘Why? Are you not getting full? What’s going on?’ And he says, ‘No. I want to
It turned out that Dylan had a classmate whose family
“I was homeless a few years ago. I know how
When the young boy’s mother learned of Duran’s generosity, she called her up and
The kindness doesn’t
|A．call back||B．reach out||C．give in||D．slow down|
Close your eyes for a minute and imagine what life would be like if you couldn’t see. Imagine
Orbis is an international charity organization,
Orbis helps those developing countries by providing sight-saving training. It
Have you heard from Singles’ Day (November 11) in China? Many people stay up lately, shopping online to get big savings. Well, the US has something like it calling Black Friday.
Black Friday is one of the bigger shopping days in the US. It always fell on the day after the Thanksgiving holiday. On Black Friday, stores will offer special deal, just like Singles’ Day in China. Shoppers will often wake up very early to wait in the line at stores after they open. Sometimes, the crowds will be such big that it is impossible get inside the store. People sometimes fight over things because there are only a few left.